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PHYA 501

Pharmacological Concepts & Pharmacotherapeutics

PHYA 502

Human Gross Anatomy

PHYA 503

History Taking & Physical Examination

PHYA 510

Clinical Medicine I

PHYA 511

Clinical Medicine II

PHYA 512

Clinical Medicine III

PHYA 514

Professional Practice Issues and Health Policy

PHYA 515

Medicine, Law & Health Care Ethics

PHYA 519

Human Physiology

PHYA 520

Pharmacology I

PHYA 521

Pharmacology II

PHYA 522

Pharmacology III

PHYA 530

Behavioral Medicine & Psychiatry

PHYA 531

Community Health Service I

PHYA 534 Introduction to Pathogenesis and Clinical Genetics

PHYA 535

Pathology I

PHYA 536

Pathology II

PHYA 537

Pathology III

PHYA 542

Research Methods in Health & Disease

PHYA 543

Evidence-Based Medicine

PHYA 549

Radiology for the Physician Assistant

PHYA 550

Family Medicine Preceptorship

PHYA 551

Internal Medicine Preceptorship

PHYA 553

Emergency Medicine Preceptorship

PHYA 554

Prenatal & Gynecology Preceptorship

PHYA 555

General Surgery Preceptorship

PHYA 556

Behavioral Medicine Preceptorship

PHYA 557

Pediatrics Preceptorship

PHYA 558

 Elective Preceptorship

PHYA 560

Research Practicum

PHYA 562

Comprehensive Review

PROFESSIONAL PHASE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

DIDACTIC CURRICULUM 

 

PHYA 501 Pharmacological Concepts & Pharmacotherapeutics, 2 credits.

This course is the first in a series of four which provide the Physician Assistant student with a broad survey of the basic principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacotherapeutics. This course reviews the mechanism(s) of action, toxicities and interactions of specific drugs and drug classes, as well as providing the students with an introduction to clinical therapeutics. Clinical therapeutics incorporates the physiologic basis and clinical characteristics of disease states relative to pharmacological therapy. Instruction also focuses on general pharmacological principles and infectious diseases.


PHYA 502 Human Gross Anatomy, 6 credits.

This course constitutes a comprehensive consideration of human anatomy using a regional approach to the human body. The lecture component of the course will consist of a detailed explanation and clarification of the relevant anatomy including general principles and concepts with a strong emphasis on the clinical relevance of each area considered. The laboratory component of the course will consist of examination of dissected or prosected cadavers, special dissections by small groups of students on cadavers, examination of plastinated specimens, models, X-rays, cross sections, bones and appropriate videos of human dissection and clinical procedures. An introductory self study medical terminolgoy section will also be presented.

PHYA 503 History Taking and Physical Examination, 12 Credits.

This course is designed to provide students with the fundamental cognitive knowledge of interviewing, patient communication skills, and general physical examination procedures that are necessary to conduct an appropriate and thorough medical interview and comprehensive physical examination for patients of all ages. Students will develop these patient interview and communications skills and general physical examination procedures through classroom work and structured clinical experiences with standardized patients under simulated conditions. Students also have and introduction to genetics in medicine during this course. Digital recording capabilities will allow students to review their clinical performance with faculty. 
       
     
PHYA 510 Clinical Medicine I, 10 credits

This course is the first of a sequence of three courses that are designed to prepare the physician assistant students for their professional clinical role. Students continue to develop and refine their patient communication, medical history taking and physical examination skills. This course provides the student with a body-system and problem-oriented approach to understanding the etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, manifestations, laboratory and diagnostic studies and diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases encountered in general practice. Health care providers will discuss specific focused physical examinations of each body system. For each disease or problem, related health promotion, disease prevention, medical nutrition, genetic and molecular mechanism of health and disease, rehabilitative care and patient education topics are also presented. Other professional issues are also considered including competency with various medical instruments and procedures. Students will also be prepared to present patient data orally as well as document patient data through use of our standardized patient lab and clinical skills seminars. The specific specialty areas and body-systems covered include infectious diseases, dermatology, endocrinology, otolaryngology, gastroenterology, hematology and pulmonology. 
       
  
PHYA 511 Clinical Medicine II, 10 credits

This course is the second of a sequence of three courses that are designed to prepare the physician assistant student for their professional clinical role. Students continue to develop and refine their patient communication, medical history taking and physical examination skills. This courses provides the student with a body-system and problem-oriented approach to understanding the etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, manifestations, laboratory and diagnostic studies, diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases encountered in general practice. Health care providers will discuss specific focused physical examinations of each body systems. For each disease or problem, related health promotion, disease prevention, medical nutrition, genetic and molecular mechanism of health and disease, rehabilitative care and patient education topics are also presented. Other professional issues are also considered including competency with various medical instruments and procedures. Students will also be prepared to present patient data orally as well as document patient data through use of our standardized patient lab and clinical skills seminars. The specific specialty areas and body-systems covered include: Cardiology, Urology, Neurology, Nephrology, Ophthamalology, Oncology, and Rheumatology. Students are certified in basic cardiac life support.
   


PHYA 512 Clinical Medicine III, 12 credits

This course is the third of a sequence of three courses that are designed to prepare the physician assistant student for their professional clinical role. Students continue to develop and refine their patient communications, medical history and physical examination skills. This sequence of courses provides the student with a body-system and problem-oriented approach to understanding the etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, manifestations, laboratory and diagnostic studies, diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases encountered in general practice, general surgery, general pediatrics, and the emergency room. Health care providers will discuss specific focused physical examinations of each body systems. For each disease or problem, related health promotion, disease prevention, medical nutrition, genetic and molecular mechanism of health and disease, rehabilitative care and patient education topics are also presented. Other professional issues are also considered including competency with various medical instruments and proceduresStudents will also be prepared to present patient data orally as well as document patient data through use of our standardized patient lab and clinical skills seminars. The specific specialty areas and body-systems covered include: Obstetrics and Gynecology, Geriatrics, Orthopedics, Pediatrics, Surgery and Emergency medicine. Students will also take a standardized basic life support course and advanced cardiac life support course. 
  

PHYA 514 Professional Practice Issues and Health Policy, 3 credits

This course will expose students to many of the principles and practices of health policy. It will include consideration of the impact of socioeconomic issues affecting health care, an overview of selected aspects of the various health care systems, and financial and productivity issues relevant to the PA profession. Other issues such as quality assurance, risk management, managed care environments and other issues pertinent to current health care practice will be discussed.  Also covered in this course is the history, development and current status of the Physician Assistant profession in the U.S. medical system in the twenty-first century.  This course also covers political and legal issues related to PA practice.  This course presents overviews of PA professional organizations, PA program accreditation, as well as certification and recertification of PAs.  The interrelated issues of licensure, credentialing and professional liability also are covered.

PHYA 515 Medicine, Law and Health Care Ethics,1 credit

This course is presented to provide physician assistant students with an understanding of basic medical law, public health policy, and medical ethics. Lectures in medical ethics, and law/medical jurisprudence are presented to provide students with a basic understanding of the legal obligations and ethical responsibilities of health care provider, both personally and professionally. This course also presents the fundamentals of health policy, violence prevention, death/dying decisions, impact of genetic technology, disease control, and basics of clinical preventive medicine.


PHYA 519 Human Physiology, 4 credits.

This course is designed to provide a comprehensive review of normal human physiology using a regional approach to the human body. The lecture component of this course will consist of a detailed explanation and clarification of the relevant physiology including general principles and concepts with a strong emphasis on the clinical relevance of each area considered.

PHYA 520 Pharmacology I, 2 credits.

This course is the first of a sequence of three courses that represents a broad survey of the basic principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacotherapeutics. This first course will review the mechanism (s) of actions, toxicities and interactions of specific drugs and drug classes, as well as provide the students with an introduction to clinical therapeutics. Clinical therapeutics incorporates the physiologic basis and clinical characteristics of disease states relative to pharmacologic therapy. Combined lecture and problem based learning case presentations are designed to develop the pharmacologic and therapeutic skills that a physician assistant will need to enhance patient care in clinical practice focusing on the following specialty areas: Infectious Diseases, Dermatology, Hematology, Otorhinolaryngology, Endocrinology, Pulmonology and Gastroenterology. 


PHYA 521 Pharmacology II, 2 credits.

This course is the second of a sequence of three courses that represents a broad survey of the basic principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacotherapeutics. This second course will also review the mechanism (s) of actions, toxicities and interactions of specific drugs and drug classes, as well as provide the students with an introduction to clinical therapeutics. Clinical therapeutics incorporates the physiologic basis and clinical characteristics of disease states relative to pharmacologic therapy. Combined lecture and problem base learning case presentations are designed to develop the pharmacologic and therapeutic skills that a physician assistant will need to enhance patient care in clinical practice focusing on the following specialty areas: Urology, Nephrology, Oncology, Rheumatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology.  


PHYA 522 Pharmacology III, 1 credit.

This course is the third of a sequence of three courses that represents a broad survey of the basic principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacotherapeutics. This third course will also review the mechanism (s) of actions, toxicities and interactions of specific drugs and drug classes, as well as provide the students with an introduction to clinical therapeutics. Clinical therapeutics incorporates the physiologic basis and clinical characteristics of disease states relative to pharmacologic therapy. Combined lecture and problem base learning case presentations are designed to develop the pharmacologic and therapeutic skills that a physician assistant will need to enhance patient care in clinical practice focusing on the following specialty areas: Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Geriatrics, Orthopedics, Emergency Medicine and General Surgery.

PHYA 530 Behavioral Medicine and Psychiatry, 2 credits

The primary goal of this course is to help the Physician Assistant student develop the necessary skills, knowledge, and sensitivity in order to intervene effectively for a variety of psychiatric, emotional, and social concerns that are presented by patients in health care settings on a daily basics. Students will be able to outline skills in coping with illness, injury and stress. Students will gain skills in the evaluation and management of patients with a variety of psychiatric problems. Students will gain an appreciation for the health care team as it applies to the mental health patient. This course will include a mixture of didactic presentations, group discussions, individual and group role-playing, workshops, and interviews with standardized patients.

PHYA 531 Community Health Service I, 2credit

This course will provide students an opportunity to interface with community-based agencies and become familiar with diverse communities, both their challenges and their resources.  In addition, this course will allow students to develop a better understanding of how social, environmental and cultural factors can impact their patient's attitudes about health.  Throughout this course, students will learn the importance of collaboration when developing relevant and effective health care interventions.

PHYA 534 Introduction to Pathogenesis and Clinical Genetics

This course will lay a foundation in the pathogenesis of disease, which is the foundation of critical thinking in clinical practice.  Topics to be covered include cellular injury, death, and repair, inflammation, immunodeficiencies, and neoplastic growth.  Additionally, the PA student will be introduced to concepts of genetics/genomics, including:  genetics terminology, patterns of inheritance, utility of genetic family history in practice, recognizing genetic contribution to disease, genetic screening, presymptomatic testing, diagnostic testing and pharmacogenetics.  The course will also cover some of the ethical, legal and social implications related to the provision of genetics services 

PHYA 535 Pathology I, 2 credits.

This course is the first of a sequence of three courses that will provide the student with a basic understanding of the nature and mechanisms of disease from a pathologic view. This study of pathology provides the understanding of the nature and mechanisms of disease which is the foundation for critical thinking in clinical practice. This sequence of courses provides a systematic approach to the physiologic basis for disease. The general pathology of cell injury, inflammation, infections and neoplasia is presented along with the disease processes of organ systems including the immunological, dermatological, hematologic, otorhinolaryngologic, gastrointestinal, respiratory and endocrine. 
  

PHYA 536 Pathology II, 2 credit

This course is the second of a sequence of three courses that will provide the student with a basic understanding of the nature and mechanisms of disease from a pathologic view. This study of pathology provides the understanding of the nature and mechanisms of disease which is the foundation for critical thinking in clinical practice. This sequence of courses provides a systematic approach to the physiologic basis for disease. Lectures are focused on disease processes of organ systems including the renal, urinary, opthalmologic, musculoskeletal, neurologic and hematological systems. 
  

PHYA 537 Pathology III, 2 credits.

This course is the third of a sequence of three courses that will provide the student with a basic understanding of the nature and mechanisms of disease from a pathologic view. This study of pathology provides the understanding of the nature and mechanisms of disease which is the foundation for critical thinking in clinical practice. This sequence of courses provides a systematic approach to the physiologic basis for disease. Lectures are focused on disease processes of organ systems including the female and male reproductive, endocrine systems including disease presentations in pediatric and geriatric patients.

PHYA 542 Research Methods in Health & Disease, 2 credits

This is an introductory course to epidemiology and research design in public health with an emphasis on the underserved.  Principles of evidence-based medicine as they relate to key areas of disease prevention and health promotion are discussed.  Community-based issues, problems and solutions are addressed.  Students who complete the course will be able to understand and apply basic statistical terms and applications as well as research designs to study commonly encountered clinical and community issues.   


PHYA 543 Evidence-Based Medicine, 2 credits

This course begins with the importance of evidence-based medicine as it relates to treatment strategies of disorders commonly treated by PA's. Key concepts on how to search, read and decipher various levels of scientific medical literature are covered. the sessions are interactive and prepare students to critically evaluate the clinically relevant issues in a broad range of physician assistant practice areas. Students develop an EBM-style clinical question that will serve as the basis for the Research Practicum completed during the clinical phase of the program. 


PHYA 549 Radiology for the Physician Assistant, 2 credits

This is course is an introduction to the field of radiology designed to provide the Physician Assistant student with a basic knowledge of the use and interpretation of a variety of radiographic studies. Through interactive technology, daily lectures, slide seminars, and case based problems the student will learn to interpret a variety of diagnostic modalities and understand their use in daily clinical practice. This course will include but not be limited to: problem based learning incorporating CAT scans, ultrasounds, MRI's, and other radiologic studies.
 

PCOM PROFESSIONAL PHASE CLINICAL COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

CLINICAL CURRICULUM

The clinical phase of the program runs a continuous 12 months. Clinical preceptorships are divided into six week blocks, ending with one four-week elective preceptorships. Seven core preceptorships are required with the remaining time available for one elective preceptorship.

Students will present their research (independent study) practicum during the final week of their clinical year. Also during this period students will participate in a comprehensive review week focusing on assessing their medical knowlege and clinical skills.

The content of clinical experiences is broadly determined by the overall goals of the program. General objectives for the clinical preceptorships are as follows:

  • to further develop, refine and integrate skills learned during the didactic portion of the curriculum, including cognitive, psychomotor and interpersonal communication skills;
  • to ensure through required preceptorships that students receive fundamental instruction in the broad areas of clinical practice, including medicine, pediatrics, surgery, emergency medicine, prenatal/gyn, and behavioral medicine.
  • to permit the student to develop particular interests by offering a wide variety of choices for an elective preceptorship which is intended to offer the following student opportunities:

      offer extended experiences on core preceptorships,

      offer experience at different practice sites (urban, rural, and underserved settings),

      offer in-depth experience in clinical specialties that deal with conditions common at the primary care level.

  • to provide clinical training sites where there is a supportive atmosphere for physician assistants, active teaching, and an adequate ratio of teachers to learners and;
  • to provide, through their preceptorships, a transition between the role of the student and graduate physician assistant, both in terms of degree of responsibility assumed and opportunity to work closely with a potential supervising physician over an extended time period.

Students will return to the PCOM program for Senior Fridays (one day per preceptorship) for testing, further evaluations, ongoing mentorship, group and individual discussions regarding their experiences, administrative maintenance and if needed counseling. Students are required to pass written examinations in all required clinical preceptorships in order to graduate with a Master of Science degree and to receive their certificate of completion. Students will take written examinations either at the clinical site or when returning to the program during each preceptorship. Clinical coordinators schedule topics for Senior Fridays that include but are not limited to: further research design concepts, evidence based medicine seminars, job hunting skills, resume development, stress management, state licensure issues, and discussions concerning ongoing PA professional issues and concerns. Senior students are invited to attend the PCOM PA program PA Day activities each year. Senior students are encouraged to attend any of the CME activities that PCOM offers for its alumni and professional students.

 

PROFESSIONAL PHASE CLINICAL COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

CLINICAL CURRICULUM

Clinical Phase Course Descriptions

The Clinical Phase courses primarily involve supervised practice experience in a variety of settings and specialties. It is expected that these experiences involve an average of 35-40 hours of practice experience each week. In many of these preceptorships, one night per week and one weekend per month of on-call experience is also appropriate and expected.

Students are also expected to develop a self-directed discipline of study appropriate to development of the clinical and cognitive skills required in each course. Evaluation of student performance in each of the Clinical Phase experiences includes the preceptor(s) evaluation of clinical performance, a written examination of clinical problem solving, and where appropriate and possible, a site visit by program faculty.

Students will return to campus approximately one day per preceptorship for written examinations, evaluation of clinical skills, participation in peer seminars and administrative activities. Successful completion of all clinical preceptorships, PA program seminars, and other clinical phase course work such as research practicum and comprehensive review week are all required for graduation.    


PHYA 550 Family Medicine Preceptorship, 10 credits.

This six week preceptorship is intended to augment and strengthen the student's skill in developing a comprehensive database and a system approach to common family medicine problems. Emphasis is placed on generating the information and skills to enable the student to recognize normal and assess clinically significant deviations from normal. Students perform patient histories and physical examinations, obtain diagnostic testing and present the data to their precepting physician(s) with a proposed differential diagnosis and treatment plan. This preceptorship will assist the student in learning the indications, limitations and methodology of family medicine procedures and therapeutic strategies. Students' function in a role similar to the intended role of a practicing physician assistant. Where possible, students participate in grand rounds, noon conferences and clinically relevant didactic presentations. A set of learning objective guides student reading in preparation for a written examination at the end of the precptorship.

    
PHYA 551 Internal Medicine Preceptorship, 10 credits.

 This six week preceptorship is intended to augment and strengthen the student's skills in developing a comprehensive database and a systemic approach to common internal medicine problems. Emphasis is placed on generating the information and skills to enable the student to recognize normal and assess clinically significant deviations from normal. Students perform patient histories and physical examinations, obtain diagnostic testing and present the data to their precepting physician(s) with a proposed differential diagnosis and treatment plan. This preceptorship will assist the student in learning the indications limitations and methodology of internal medicine procedures and therapeutic strategies. Students function in a role similar to the intended role of a practicing physician assistant, including participating in hospital rounds where diagnostic and therapeutic plans for acutely ill patients are discussed, performing and observing various clinical procedures and preparing written and oral communication about patients. Where possible, students participate in grand rounds, noon conferences and clinically relevant didactic presentations. A set of learning objectives guides student reading in preparation for a written examination at the end of the preceptorship.

    
PHYA 553 Emergency Medicine Preceptorship, 10 credits

This is a six week preceptorship which allows the student to augment and strength the student's skills in developing a comprehensive database and a systemic approach to common emergency medicine problems. Emphasis is placed on generating the information and skills to enable the student to recognize recognize normal and assess clinically significant deviations from normal. Students will perform appropriate clinical evaluation: including focused patient history and physical examinations, obtain diagnostic testing and present the data to their precepting physician(s) with a proposed differential diagnosis and treatment plan. Students will gain skills which include those necessary for appropriate triage, stabilization of patients with traumatic injuries and illnesses, the management of the less life threatening problems which present to the emergency room, working with the pre-hospital emergency medical service team, and making appropriate secondary referrals. Where possible, students participate in grand rounds, noon conferences and other clinically relevant didactic presentations. A set of learning objectives guides student reading in preparation for a written examination at the end of the preceptorship 
   
 

PHYA 554 Prenatal and Gynecology Preceptorship, 10 credits.

This is six week preceptorship which is intended to augment and strengthen the student's skills in developing a comprehensive database and a systemic approach to common problems seen in prenatal and gynecology practice. Emphasis is placed on generating the information and skills to enable the student to recognize recognize normal and assess clinically significant deviations from normal. Students will perform appropriate clinical evaluation: including focused patient history and physical examinations, obtain diagnostic testing and present the data to their precepting physician(s) with a proposed differential diagnosis and treatment plan. This preceptorship teaches the student the indications, limitations, and methodology of prenatal and gynecologic procedures and therapeutic strategies. Students will also have the experience in managing common outpatient gynecology problems, gynecologic diagnostic techniques and therapy, family planning, assisting at gynecologic surgery, and techniques for the early detection of gynecologic cancer. A set of learning objectives guides student reading in preparation for a written examination at the end of the preceptorship. 
   
 
PHYA 555 General Surgery Preceptorship, 10 credits.

This six week surgical preceptorship will augment and strength the student's skills in developing a comprehensive database and a systemic approach to common problems in general surgery. Students will perform appropriate clinical evaluation: including comprehensive surgical history and physical examinations, obtain diagnostic testing and present the data to their precepting physician(s) with a proposed differential diagnosis and treatment plan. Students will assist in surgical procedures in the operating room, the diagnostic evaluation of surgical patients, with pre and postoperative care with the ambulatory care of surgical patients. Proficiency is to be developed in suturing, incision and drainage, excision and the biopsy of simple wounds and lesions. Where possible, students participate in grand rounds, noon conferences and other clinically relevant didactic presentations. A set of learning objectives guides student reading in preparation for a written examination at the end of the preceptorship. 
  

PHYA 556 Behavioral Medicine  and Long Term Care Preceptorship, 10 credits.

This six week preceptorship is split into two sections. Behavior Medicine will last 4 weeks and Long Term Care will last 2 weeks. Behavior Medicine portion involves experiences, primarily in outpatient settings, that allow students to develop skills in the evaluation and management of patients with a variety of psychiatric and addiction problems. Through these experiences, students gain an appreciation for the role of psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse and social worker in the care of the mentally ill and become better able to make appropriate psychiatric referrals from primary care. The use of psychoactive pharmaceuticals and the role of psychotherapy is psychiatry are explored. In the Long Term Care portion, students will participate in providing healthcare for the geriatric and long term care patient population in a nursing home setting. This preceptorship allows students to enhance both clinical and communication skills, while providing he opportunity to gain insight and experience in geriatrics and long term patient care. This preceptorship is intended to augment and strengthen the student's deductive reasoning and clinical decision making skills by developing a comprehensive database and a systemic approach to common geriatric medical pathology and the concerns encountered with patients in a long term care facility. Where possible, students participate in grand rounds, conferences and other clinically relevant didactic presentations. A set of learning objectives guides student reading in preparation for a written examination at the end of the preceptorship.
  
   
PHYA 557 Pediatrics Preceptorship, 10 credits.

This is a six week preceptorship for clinical phase PA students which provides inpatient and/or outpatient exposure to a patient population ranging from neonates to late adolescents. This six week pediatric preceptorship will augment and strength the student's skills in developing a comprehensive database and a systemic approach to common problems in pediatrics. Emphasis is placed on generating the information and skills to enable the student to recognize recognize normal and assess clinically significant deviations from normal. Students will perform appropriate clinical evaluation: including comprehensive history and physical examinations, obtain diagnostic testing and present the data to their precepting physician(s) with a proposed differential diagnosis and treatment plan. The student will have an intense exposure to primary care pediatric problems with the objective of developing skills in well child preventive care, the care of common pediatric illnesses and the care of the newborn. These experiences are obtained in the outpatient and inpatient setting. A set of learning objectives guides student reading in preparation for a written examination at the end of the preceptorship. 
  

PHYA 558 Elective Preceptorship, 6 credits.

This is a four week preceptorship which offers the student an opportunity to complete an elective of their choice. During the didactic portion of the Professional Phase PA Program students consider their own clinical practice interests and needs for skill development. The student selects a clinical area for their elective with the approval of his/her faculty advisor. The student develops an individualized learning contract which includes objectives for their elective rotation, and a method to demonstrate achievement of these objectives at the conclusion of their preceptorship. Students are responsible for an oral presentation to the class regarding a specific health care topic at the end of their elective preceptorship . 
  

PHYA 560 Research Practicum, 3 credits.

Senior PA students. using the knowledge acquired in prior related courses, are required to ask a clinically relevant question in a clinical discipline common to PA practice. A subsequent search and interpretation of the literature results in the culmination of a year long project conducting, writing and presenting a systematic review on chosen topics of interest. 
  

PHYA 562 Comprehensive Review, 3 credits.

This course is intended to review and assess the student's knowledge of core competencies.  It includes two directed standardized patient encounters with oral case presentations to a faculty member and a written comprehensive examination.

Last Updated: 9/29/14